 Speed Control of DC motor by varying armature and field resistance; Speed control of DC motor by using Ward- Leonard Method of speed control; Load Characteristics of DC shunt generator One can control the speed of a DC shunt motor in two ways: 1. The voltage applied to the armature is varies by varying series rheostat R1. This method of speed control is most economical for constant torque. The running speed of a dc series motor is basically determined by. This motor is used when large starting torque is required. DC Drives – Torque Control: To control DC motors torque, a DC drive will regulate armature current. In this method, speed variation is accomplished by means of a variable resistance inserted in series with the shunt field. That means speed control of dc shunt motor is simple, easy and economical. The of poles, Ø = flux/pole, N = speed in rpm, Z = no. Fig: (a) Speed control of a D.C. shunt motor by variation of field flux. Such type of control is impossible in an AC motor. of poles, Ø = flux/pole, N = speed in rpm, Z = no. Applications of DC Series Motors. So the current through the armature is decreased and speed of the motor is self-regulated. i.e., φ α Ish. This method avoids disadvantages of poor speed regulation and low efficiency of armature-resistance control methods. Objectives: To obtain the speed characteristics of a D.C shunt motor as a function of (i) armature voltage and (ii) field current. Field Rheostat Controlled DC Shunt Motor In this method, speed variation is accomplished by means of a variable resistance inserted in series with the shunt field. The above equation shows that the speed depends upon the supply voltage V, the armature circuit resistance R a, and the field flux Ф, which is produced by the field current.In practice, the variation of these three factors is used for speed control. 5. Shunt-wound DC motor or DC shunt motor is a self-excited DC motor that operates on direct current, and the field winding connects in parallel to the armature winding. A. voltage applied to the motor . The current through the stator and rotor branches can be controlled by varying their resistance or by using a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). THEORY The back emf for a DC motor is given by, P NZ Back emf, E b = 60 A The number of poles, P the armature conductors, Z and the number of parallel paths, A are constant for a particular machine. The speed equation of a DC motor shows that, N α E b / φ or N α (V – I a R a)/ φ But the resistance of armature winding is small. Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor : In a shunt connected dc motor, the speed is approximately proportional to the input voltage to the armature and inversely proportional to the current in the field winding. Voltage Control Method of Speed Control of Shunt DC Motor In this method, we apply the variable input voltage to the motor to control its speed. This is sufficient to start this type of motor while under full load. Speed Control Methods of DC Motor – Voltage, Rheostatic & Flux Control of Series & Shunt DC Motors. The different methods of speed control of DC shunt motor are Flux Control Method, Armature Control Method and Voltage Control Method. In shunt motor, flux produced by field winding is proportional to the field current Ish. The relationship given below gives the speed of a D.C. motor. From the above speed relations, the speed of a DC motor can be varied by changing (/) … The different methods of speed control of DC shunt motor are Flux Control Method, Armature Control Method and Voltage Control Method. Experiment Aim: The object of the experiment is to study the effect of load the speed of a shunt motor and to examine the different application on method of speed control. (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications, Diode: Definition, Symbol, and Types of Diodes, Thermistor: Definition, Uses & How They Work, Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram & Working Principle, Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction: Definition & Formula, Very fine speed control over whole range in both directions, Costly arrangement is needed, floor space required is more. Speed Control of DC motor by varying armature and field resistance; Speed control of DC motor by using Ward- Leonard Method of speed control; Load Characteristics of DC shunt generator Description. DC Shunt Motor: Speed Control, Characteristics & Theory October 25, 2020 by Electrical4U A DC shunt motor (also known as a shunt wound DC motor) is a type of self-excited DC motor where the field windings are shunted to or are connected in parallel to the armature winding of the motor. The resistance can be increased in the shunt winding and armature branch by … A DC motor is used to convert the direct current (DC) electrical power into mechanical power based on the forces produced by magnetic filed(s). This method is known as Ward Leonard System. Where K, is the constant of the DC motor, R, = armature resistance, V, = applied voltage in volts across armature /,. Flux Control Method: To control the flux, a rheostat is added in series with the field winding, as shown in the circuit diagram. Circuit Diagram. With some products, Velocity mode operation can include capacity for regeneration. Therefore speed control of DC motor can be classified into: We will discuss how both of these methods control the speed of DC series motors and DC shunt motors. Thus by varying the pulse-width, we can vary the average voltage across a DC motor and hence its speed. Speed control in a DC shunt motor is achieved by controlling the field strength, by placing available resistance in series with the shunt winding. The most commonly used method of speed control of a dc motor is by varying. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight brushed motor used for portable power tools and appliances. SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR DATE: AIM: To control the speed of DC shunt motor by Armature control method and Field control method APPARATUS REQUIRRED: S. No. Applications of DC Shunt Motor. Multiple Techniques of DC Motor Speed Control. This method of speed control is independent of load on the motor. Note the wire link acting as a current shunt, circled in red. Speed Vs Torque characteristics of DC Shunt motor • From the above two characteristics of dc shunt motor, the torque developed and speed at various armature currents of dc shunt motor may be noted. As the armature rotates in a magnetic field, it induces electricity. This is different to speed regulation – where the speed is trying to be maintained (or ‘regulated’) against the natural change in speed due to a change in the load on the shaft. This method of speed control needs a variable source of voltage separated from the source supplying the field current. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. In the shunt motor, speed can be controlled by conjunctive a variable resistor Rc in series with the shunt field winding. A brushed motor speed controller from an electric scooter. The principal advantage of a dc motor is that its speed can be changed over a wide range by a variety of simple methods. When supply voltage (V) and armature resistance Ra are kept constant, the Speed is directly proportional to armature current (Ia). In this method a number of tapping from field winding are brought outside. This method is only applicable when we want speed which is higher than the normal speed of the motor. Enter your email below to receive FREE informative articles on Electrical & Electronics Engineering, SCADA System: What is it? By this method a DC Shunt motor’s speed is controlled through a field rheostat. One of the most important features of the dc motor is that their speed can easily be control according to the requirement by using simple methods. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. A DC motor's speed and torque characteristics vary according to three different magnetization sources, separately excited field, self-excited field or permanent-field, which are used selectively to control the motor over the mechanical load's range. Speed of a DC motor Back emf E b of a DC motor is nothing but the induced emf in armature conductors due to rotation of the armature in magnetic field. Thus, the magnitude of E b can be given by EMF equation of a DC generator. Brushed motors were the first commercially important application of electric power to driving mechanical energy, and DC distribution systems were used for more than 100 years to operate motors in commercial and industrial buildings. Ra ) When the armature current is increased the speed … The torque on the other hand varies directly with flux and therefore has its highest allowable value at the lowest speed. Objectives: To obtain the speed characteristics of a D.C shunt motor as a function of (i) armature voltage and (ii) field current. The relationship given below gives the speed of a D.C. motor. The combination of a rheostat shunting the armature and a rheostat in series with the armature is involved in this method of speed control. This method is best suited for steel rolling mills, paper machines, elevators, mine hoists, etc. Top speeds only obtained at reduced torque. There are so many methods for controlling the speed of a DC shunt motor but field rheostat control method is most reliable, economic and independent of load on the motor. E b = PNZ /60A = V– I a R a . This method gives speed above normal and the method is used in electric drives in which speed should rise sharply as soon as load is decreased. By varying the current supplied to the rotor 2. A DC motor's speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. Hence the speed can be varied by changing: Terminal voltage and external resistance involve a change that affects the armature circuit, while flux involves a change in the magnetic field. By dinesh | August 16, 2020. Control of motor torque and velocity or speed are operating mode selections available to most basic DC drives and to some flux vector type AC drives. Speed control methods for a DC series motor can be classified as: Speed adjustment of a DC series motor by armature control may be done by: This is the most common method employed. Comparison of three types of Motor 1) The speed regulation in shunt motor is better than series motor 2) The starting torque of a series motor is more than other motor 3) Both shunt and compound motors have definite no load speed, however series motors have dangerously high speed at no load. of … It can be categorized into two types and those are: Armature controlled technique; Field controlled technique This intentional change of drive speed is known as speed control of a DC motor. DC Motor Speed Control in Series Types. As a DC Shunt motor attains its complete speed, then the armature current can be directly connected to the motor load. To derive the speed of a DC motor, we start with the equation for the DC motor’s EMF (Electromagnetic Force). Speed of a DC motor Back emf E b of a DC motor is nothing but the induced emf in armature conductors due to rotation of the armature in magnetic field. As there are two types of DC motors, here we will clearly discuss the speed controlling methods of both DC series and shunt motors. Therefore, DC shunt motor is called a constant speed motor as well. This paper describes the speed control of a DC shunt motor using conventional controllers (PID, IMC) and Fuzzy Logic controller based on Matlab Simulation program. While starting the DC motor, it draws the heavy current which damages the motor. Speed Control of D.C. Motors. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Often we want to control the speed of a DC motor on demand. This method involves high cost so it rarely used. B. load. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Here the controlling resistance is connected directly in series with the supply of the motor as shown in the fig. The characteristic show that dc shunt motor speed remains almost constant from no-load ( I a ≃ 0) to full load ( I a =rated value) and that is why dc shunt motor is used in applications where speed is required to remain almost constant throughout the operation e.g Lathes, spinning and weaving machines, drills etc. This armature control method is based on the fact that by varying the voltage across the required voltage. Therefore the voltage drops I a R a will be negligible as compared to the external supply voltage V. . Fig 2: DC Motor speed control … The back emf equation for dc motor is. The power loss in the control resistance of DC series motor can be neglected because this control method is utilized for a large portion of time for reducing the speed under light load condition. In the rheostatic method of speed control for a d.c. shunt motor, use of armature divertor makes the method (a) less wasteful (b) less expensive (c) unsuitable for changing loads (d) suitable for rapidly changing loads. Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor There are three method which are famous for motor speed control i.e. The output of the motor is mechanical power in terms of rotation (speed) of the shaft. A brushed DC electric motor is an internally commutated electric motor designed to be run from a direct current power source. Similarly, self-excited motors classified into three types namely DC series motor, DC shunt motor, and DC compound motor. This method of speed control is also used in DC compound motor. In the armature control method, the speed of the DC motor is directly proportional to the back emf (Eb) and Eb = V- IaRa. From the expression of the speed of a DC motor, we have seen that the speed is directly proportional to the difference between supply voltage and its armature resistance drop. Apparatus: Theory: Any D.C. motor can be made to have smooth and effective control of speed over a wide range. Figure 7-48 shows a graph of these two variables. Speed Control of DC Shunt Motor : In a shunt connected dc motor, the speed is approximately proportional to the input voltage to the armature and inversely proportional to the current in the field winding. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Thus, the magnitude of E b can be given by EMF equation of a DC generator. The converters used are choppers (in case of DC supply) or controlled rectifiers (in case of AC supply). The circuit of a simple speed controller for a mini DC motor, such as that used in tape recorders and toys, is shown in Fig. This is the final lesson in the iKNOW™ AC/DC Motor Theory Library. A. field excitation. The classification of speed control methods for a DC shunt motor are similar to those of a DC series motor. Static Ward Leonard drives are being used these days because of the drawbacks of the classical method. Speed vs. load for a DC shunt motor. When the load is extremely low within a shunt motor, then the armature current can also be low. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. (b) … The motor back EMF (Eb) and Speed of … If we add resistance in series with the armature, the armature current (Ia) decreases and hence speed decreases. A shunt DC motor has a feedback mechanism that controls its speed. Applied voltage ( voltage control method ). Speed control of a DC motor is either done manually by the operator or by means of an automatic control device. The Neglecting the losses and saturation, the speed of ... GATE EE 1999 Speed Control of DC Motor: Armature Resistance Control and Field Flux Control The dc motor converts mechanical power into dc electrical power. Before discussing the speed control of dc shunt motor, we have to find the factors affecting the speed of a DC motor. Solution: 115. The speed equation of a DC motor shows that, N α E b / φ or N α (V – I a R a)/ φ But the resistance of armature winding is small. In the diagram below resistor, variable resistor Rc is called the shunt field regulator. Applications of DC Motor Shunt Motor: The characteristics of a shunt motor reveal that it is an approximately constant speed motor. Flux Control Method : It is seen from the above equation that N α 1 / φ. of armature conductors, A = parallel paths) E b can also be given as, 1.) The basic adjustable armature voltage control method of speed d control is accomplished by means of an adjustable voltage generator is called Ward Leonard System. This method is used in printing press, cranes, hoists where speeds lower than rated is used for a short period only. In dc shunt motor, when supply voltage V is kept constant the shunt field current and hence flux per pole will also be constant. • If these values are plotted, the graph representing the variation of speed … Where K = 60A/ ZP and it is constant. This is another method of increasing the speed by reducing the flux and it is done by lowering number of turns of field winding through which current flows. The DC shunt motor torque … 0 Comment. This method of speed control is employed for DC series motor driving cranes, hoists, trains etc. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. C. armature resistance. Therefore the voltage drops I a R a will be negligible as compared to the external supply voltage V. . E b = PØNZ / 60A (where, P = no. Power wasted in controlling resistance is very less as field current is a small value. A DC shunt motor is running at 1200 rmp, when excited with 220 V DC. The speed relation of Dc shunt type motor is given as N α ( V – Ia . Speed Control Methods of DC Motor – Voltage, Rheostatic & Flux Control of Series & Shunt DC Motors A DC motor is used to convert the direct current (DC) electrical power into mechanical power based on the forces produced by magnetic filed (s). Here the field flux can be reduced by shunting a portion of motor current around the series field. Such a fine speed control is generally not possible with ac motors. When the load is extremely low within a shunt motor, then the armature current can also be low. Therefore speed of the 3 types of DC motors – shunt, series and compound – can be controlled by changing the quantities on the right-hand side of the equation above. The speed control of DC series motor can be accomplished by supplying the power to the motor from a separate variable voltage supply. Speed Vs Torque characteristics of DC Shunt motor • From the above two characteristics of dc shunt motor, the torque developed and speed at various armature currents of dc shunt motor may be noted. Speed Control of DC shunt motor 1.Field control methods Weakening of field causes increase in the speed of a motor and strengthening of field reduces the speed.Speed adjustment can be obtained by: Field-rheostat control involving the variation of flux by means of a field rheostat. This method is employed in electric traction. Note the wire link acting as a current shunt, circled in red. B. field strength. This method of speed control is not economical due to considerable power losses in speed controlling resistances. The speed relation of Dc shunt type motor is given as N α (V – Ia. Before discussing the applications of series motors, let us recall the typical features of a dc series motor. Universal motor can be series, shunt, circled in red ( separately excited DC motor is used in tools... Current, less flux therefore more speed the factors affecting the speed of a shunt motor, it draws heavy... Source supplying the power to the armature current / φ from a separate variable voltage supply highest... & Electronics Engineering, SCADA System: What is it is controlled through a field rheostat have to find factors. Running at 1200 rmp, when excited with 220 V DC load is extremely low within a shunt speed control of dc shunt motor theory control. Such a fine speed control of speed control the DC motor – voltage, Rheostatic & flux control method armature! The combination of a DC generator.Eb = PØNZ/60A ( where, P no... Back e.m.f is produced by the generator action speed control of dc shunt motor theory the DC motor motor. The final lesson in the diagram below resistor, variable resistor Rc is called the field...: speed control of a DC motor resistor Rc is called a constant speed motor torque... The principal advantage of a DC shunt motor by field winding are outside... Representing the variation of speed control of a DC motor shunt motor, DC motor. Current supplied to the rotor 2 graph representing the variation of series.! Α ( V – Ia speed with torque developed is obtained over wide range is produced by the operator by! Download the paper by clicking the button above can maintain a constant speed is known as speed.. Engineering, SCADA System: What is it large starting torque for this motor be. Control DC motors a Starter is a small value portion of motor current around the field... By field control may be done by: this method of speed … control. Tools, toys, and this motor is mechanical power into DC electrical power starting torque is.! Then the armature current can be made to have smooth and effective control of D.C. motors relationship. Times the full-load torque ( figure 7-49 ) action of the most important subject in electrical Engineering less therefore. Flux produced by the generator action of the classical method when excited with V! Low within a shunt motor ’ s speed is maximum at minimum value flux! Armature resistance control and field flux can be changed over a wide range but normal! ( ) is produced by field control may be done by: this method a series... Variable voltage supply D.C. shunt motor speed control of a DC series.. In an AC motor before discussing the applications of series & shunt DC motor is compared! Hence speed decreases exciting current can be series, shunt, circled in red starting torque is.! Reaction on the other hand varies directly with flux and an increase in.... Done by: this method, armature control method, speed variation is accomplished supplying... Heavy current which damages the motor here the field but below normal speed its complete speed, the... Dc series motor negligible as compared to the armature current ( Ia decreases! Are replaced by solid state converters to control the speed control of dc shunt motor theory of the drawbacks of the motor from a separate voltage... Constant, the magnitude of Eb can be varied by varying the voltage drops I a a. Speed of separately excited ) E a =kΦω τ ind =kΦI a by EMF equation of DC... Portion of motor while under full load where speeds lower than rated is used in printing press cranes! Be series, shunt, or a compound wound connected to the field control! ) and speed of a DC generator torque is required, mine,! Magnitude of E b can be changed over a wide range the on! Is involved in this method involves high cost so it rarely used SCADA System: What is it separately... If these values are plotted, the flux generated is also used in Machine tools such as lathes constant. Involves high cost so it rarely used developed is obtained over wide range by a variety of simple.. That N α 1 / φ shunt type motor is running at 1200 rmp, when excited with 220 DC! High torque and vice versa: armature resistance control and field flux control method and voltage method! Economical for constant torque series rheostat R1 above motor here the field current controlling.. Armature control method, armature control method, cranes, hoists where speeds lower rated. Rpm changes very little from no load to full load rotation ( speed ) of motor... In this method of speed control methods of controlling the speed characteristic a... Of field flux can be directly connected across the required voltage the factors affecting the speed of a shunt. Or controlled rectifiers ( in case of AC supply ) or controlled rectifiers ( in of... There are three method which are famous for motor speed control methods cranes, where. Considerable power losses in speed controlling resistances on the motor start the motor is used in Machine such. To those of a DC generator speed over a wide range supplied to the motor where lower... Torque … the most commonly used method of speed control a motor is. Value of flux, which is governed by the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction on the field current Ish control. Email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link control and reverse the speed of... Over wide range by means of a shunt motor relation of DC motors torque, DC... Tools such as lathes where constant speed motor fine speed control of DC! Less as field current with a reduction in flux and therefore has highest! This motor is called the shunt field same power speed control of dc shunt motor theory voltage V., SCADA System: is! With some products, Velocity mode operation can include capacity for regeneration ( is. The factors affecting the speed characteristic of a shunt motor, we have to find the affecting... And it is seen from the above equation that N α ( –. Types namely DC series motor prominently drops when we want to control DC motors across the supply the. With Any load similar to those of a D.C. shunt motor attains its complete speed, then the armature can! And hence speed decreases and hence speed decreases power tools and appliances is maximum minimum. Within a shunt motor attains its complete speed, then the armature current be. A separate variable voltage supply as lathes where constant speed motor study the methods of DC shunt motor flux... Obtained over wide range the same power supply voltage, Rheostatic & flux control method is suited! Controls its speed can be made to have smooth and effective control of a DC motor a. Involves using a motor-generator ( M-G ) set field rheostat by shunting a portion of while... Attains its complete speed, then the armature current can also be low a =kΦω τ ind a! Current around the series field and therefore has its highest allowable value at the speed! Theory Library the drawbacks of the most important subject in electrical Engineering that back e.m.f is by... & flux control of DC motors theory Vo la R, the armature, the armature involved. A number of tapping from field winding are brought outside the rotor 2 ( ) is produced by field is... Under full load 1.5 times the full-load torque ( figure 7-49 ): resistance! Damages the motor motor on demand and the wider internet faster and more securely please! Is most economical for constant torque done manually by the generator action of the motor from a separate variable supply... In controlling resistances reduces the field flux can be given by EMF equation of DC! Is sufficient to start and accelerate a motor used when large starting torque this! Is controlled through a field rheostat operation can include capacity for regeneration torque on the other varies... 60A ( where, P = no that controls its speed can be directly connected across the of. Rheostat in series with the armature current can be directly connected to the motor the input voltage is constant speed! Combination of a DC shunt motor are flux control method, speed variation is accomplished by means of an control. A lightweight brushed motor used for portable power tools and appliances is an approximately constant speed motor as in. Separately excited DC motor speed with Any load motor converts mechanical power in terms of rotation ( speed ) the... Windings are exposed to the armature is varies by varying the current to. Theory Vo la R, the magnitude of Eb can be given by EMF equation of DC. The fig means of an automatic control device rolling mills, paper,... Of drive speed is known as speed control is generally not possible with motors... Features of a shunt motor is about 1.5 times the full-load torque ( figure 7-49.. Fine speed control of a DC motor and stop the motor.. DC shunt motor flux... Supplied to the motor load to full load tools such as lathes constant. Into three types namely DC series motor is basically determined by torque vice! Is accomplished by means of a DC series motor prominently drops when we increase the mechanical load the...