Availability of fuel for adequate sterilizing of eating utensils and food and the preservation of food proves necessary to promote health. Parent's education level also determines child health, survival, and their educational attainment (Caldwell, 1986; Cleland & Van Ginneken, 1988). ↩ ↩2, PHE and the Institute of Health Equity. However, this gap has reduced from 19 percentage points in 2012 to 2013, 14% of children were eligible for free school meals in 2014 to 2015, only a third (33.1%) of children eligible for free school meals achieved 5 good GCSEs including maths and English in 2014 to 2015, while nearly twice as many pupils not eligible for free school meals attained this level (60.9%), there has been little change in the size of the attainment gap between these 2 groups of children since 2009 to 2010, over the last 4 years there has been a steady decline in the proportion of young people in England who are, there is a clear social gradient in unemployment, in 2015, unemployment in the most deprived local authorities was more than double that of the least deprived local authorities, the gap between unemployment in the most and least deprived decile has decreased from 7.5 percentage points in 2013 to 5.1 percentage points in 2015, in England, 10.6% of households were fuel poor in 2014.  The death rate of adults 25 to 64 years old was 32% higher among rural residents than those of suburban counties and of urban counties. Poverty can overpower race, but within poverty, race highly contributes to health outcomes.  Relative poverty is "the inability to afford the goods, services, and activities needed to fully participate in a given society. ↩, Whitelaw S, Swift J, Goodwin A, Clark D. (2008) Physical activity and mental health: The role of physical activity in promoting mental wellbeing and preventing mental health problems: an evidence briefing.  Evidence confirms that high job demand, low control, and low rewards for effort in these low status jobs are risk factors for mental and physical health problems, such as a 50% excess risk of heart disease (Stansfeld & Candy, 2006). 3.Health services accessibility. As outlined in chapters 3 and 4, these disease groups are major contributors to the total burden of morbidity across England and EU countries. ↩, Department for Communities and Local Government. (2010) The Marmot Review: Fair Society, Healthy Lives. Health inequalities are underpinned by the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. Source: Wider Determinants of Health Profile. (Kivimaki et al., 2003). We use this information to make the website work as well as possible and improve government services. National Bureau of Economic Research: Cambridge, MA. These inequalities in population health are an example of the social gradient in health.  Global studies demonstrate that risk for contracting cervical cancer, exclusive to women, increases as socioeconomic status decreases. Informal work can threaten health through its precarious job instability, lack of regulation to protect working conditions and occupational health and safety. Social factors are things that affect lifestyle, such as religion, wealth or family. The broad social and economic circumstances that together influence health throughout the life course are known as the ‘social determinants of health’. Unemployment has been falling in England, down to 5.1% in 2015, but this proportion increases to 8.4% for people living in the most deprived areas, more than double that of people in the least deprived areas (3.4%). Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, work environment, age, and other social factors, and how these affect people's ability to respond to illness. Department for Work and Pensions. Of these children, 45.6% did not reach a good level of development compared with 28.3% of children not eligible for free school meals (figure 2).  First, women might report higher levels of health problems as a result of differential exposure or reduced access to material and social factors that foster health and well-being (Arber & Cooper, 1999) Second, women might report higher health problems because of differential vulnerability to material, behavioral, and psychosocial factors that foster health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. The Joseph Roundtree Foundation report provides data for Britain rather than England.  The challenges of urban areas, such as high population density, crowding, unsuitable living conditions, and little social support, provide a special challenge to the disabled and populations in low and middle income countries(Frumkin et al., 2004). The social factors shape who we are as people. The rates are even higher in African nations suffering the AIDS epidemic, such as Zimbabwe where 772 of 1000 adults die each year (WHO 2010).  It is suggested by WHO that those who are the most vulnerable and affected by policy changes that influence their quality of health should have a direct hand in the construction and adoption of these same policies. According to US HHS, "In 2009, children 6–17 years of age were more likely to be uninsured than younger children, and children with a family income below 200% of the poverty level were more likely to be uninsured than children in higher-income families. This chapter helps explain what social health is.  According to certain studies in the United States, the death rate of individuals age 1–24 years was 31% higher than those in urban counties.  "Children born to more educated mothers are less likely to die in infancy and more likely to have higher birth weights and be immunized. Poor housing conditions are associated with a number of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma and poor mental health[footnote 20],[footnote 21]. These include socieodemographic factors (such as age, ethnicity, marital status, and education), systematic barriers, and barriers based on lack of knowledge, attitudes and life-styles.  Health-related behaviors, access and use of healthcare, stress, and psychosocial resources like social ties, coping, and spirituality all serve as factors that mediate health inequality. The quality of available work can also play a part in health outcomes both physically and mentally. Meanwhile, the merits of some current attempts to tackle social factors affecting health remain in doubt. 2.Health care rationing. , Poverty during pregnancy has been reported to cause a wide range of disparities in newborns. The ACA helped 20 million Americans get coverage and decreased the rates of uninsured from 16% in 2010 to 8.6% in 2016. Psychological factors can influence physical health either indirectly, by changing behaviors that affect your health, such as eating, sleeping and socializing, or directly, by producing changes in your hormones and/or heart rate. Income can affect many aspects of health and in turn, have a knock-on effect on other social determinants. ↩, Forest Research.  Thus family affluence is correlated with reduced psychological stress during adolescence. This program employs a method of addressing the social determinants of health, liaison work, contextualized by their predominantly impoverished patient population. Wilkinson P, Armstrong B, London M. (2001) Cold comfort: The social and environmental determinants of excess winter deaths in England, 1986-1996. 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