Little sign of these floods had been found until recently, when a team of researchers reported evidence of a massive deluge of the Yellow River around 4,000 years ago. Dutch, Steven I. Casualties: Close to a million Chinese peasants died or starved How much damage (in land)? 1 Strategic decision and subsequent flood ; 2 Controversy regarding the strategy ; 3 Controversy regarding number of casualties ; 4 … Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Yellow River flooding is responsible for the deadliest disaster in human history. YELLOW RIVER FLOOD 1938 During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Nationalist blew up the dikes holding back the Yellow River in an attempt to stop the invading Japanese. Close. Rivers flood. To stop further Japanese advances into the western and southern part China, Chiang Kai-shek, at the suggestion of Chen Guofu, determined to open up the dikes on the Yellow River near Zhengzhou. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. Tangshan earthquake, 1976. The 1938 Yellow River flood was created by the ‘Chinese Government’ itself. An official Nationalist post-war commission estimated that 800,000 were drowned, which may be an underestimate. This is going to get pretty interesting. An earlier flood in September–October 1887 is thought to have killed 900,000 to 2,000,000 residents; a third, on June 9, 1938, was responsible for 500,000 to 900,000 deaths. Draining a basin of 745 000 square kilometres which nourishes 120 million people, the Yellow River is the second longest river in China. China 1938 Yellow River Flood Historical Impact: -During second Sino-Japanese war -The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the China Flood (1931) China floods or Yellow River floods is considered as one of the worst floods in … Swept over 9000 square miles of the plain When? YELLOW RIVER FLOOD 1938 During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Nationalist blew up the dikes holding back the Yellow River in an attempt to stop the invading Japanese. Because of frequent devastating floods and course changes produced by the continual elevation of the river bed, sometimes above the level of its surrounding farm fields, it also has the names China’s Sorrow and Scourge of the Sons of Han . Leave a Comment / Natural / By devastating High rain fall caused the Yellow River to overtop its banks leading to a widespread flood and the deaths of 900,000. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Huang-He-floods, DisasterHistroy.org - Yellow River flood, 1938-47, Huang He Floods - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Yellow River and the Yellow Sea are closely related because the river drains into the sea and is party responsible for the golden yellow color of the sea. (Brush and Wolman, 200&)The causes of both the 1887 and 1931 floods from the Yellow river are the same, heavy rain. "The Largest Act of Environmental Warfare in History". natural disasters, China [1887, 1931, 1938]. (Brush and Wolman, 200&)The causes of both the 1887 and 1931 floods from the Yellow river are the same, heavy rain. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. In this year, three of China's biggest rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze, and Huai) all flooded. There have been more previous flooding of the Yellow river including one that was human induced in 1938, but the 1931 flood was the last of the natural floods that brought about such large amounts of damage. The floods, which occurred in 1887, 1931, and 1938, collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. The extensive silt deposition in the river’s lower reaches across the North China Plain and the expansive stretches of flat land surrounding it have always made the area extremely prone to flooding. This list does not include the man-made 1938 Yellow River flood caused entirely by a deliberate man-made act (an act of war, destroying dikes). The Huang He, which has a length of 3,395 miles (5,464 km), is the main river of northern China, rising in the eastern Kunlun Mountains in Qinghai province in the west of the country and flowing generally east until it empties into the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli), an embayment of the Yellow Sea. The rains produced with the hurricane took a minor or moderate flood and resulted in the major flooding that occurred in 1938. Updates? In the last 2000 years, the Yangtze River has flooded more than 1000 times. While the advance was delayed, the flood also caused around 500,000 to 900,000 Chinese civilian deaths. Disaster: Manmade 1938 Yellow River Flood Japan vs China War Estimated 500,000 Innocents Died. The Yellow, Yangtze, and Huai Rivers of China flooded in 1931, inundating almost all of central China in the worst natural disaster in the nation’s history. “ 1938–1947 nianjian de Huanghe nan fan ” [The Yellow River’s southern flood from 1938–1947]. The rain increased into July and August of 1931. The yellow silt that provoked the river's name can pile up higher than the land around it, causing the water to spill out of its causeway and onto the flat land surrounding it. Unable to fully decide which group deserved more blame for the catastrophe, the Chinese Government or the invading Japanese, many survivors blamed both sides. Corrections? 191–207. Thursday, Jun 23, 1938. 3. The floods covered and destroyed thousands of square kilometers of farmland and shifted the mouth of the Yellow River hundreds of miles to the south. Buy the print book Check if you have access via personal or institutional login. Thanks to the massive property destruction and the loss of live it has caused, the river has been dubbed ‘’China’s Sorrow’’ by westerners. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. 3. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 1938 Yellow River flood. The point was nevertheless made, the breach had in the end given the Communists a huge boost in the North. In 1946 and 1947, tens of thousands of laborers supervised by UNRRA-CNRRA returned the river to its pre-1938 co… Afterwards, the government wasn’t able to organize enough relief efforts. pp. What was the Yellow River Flood death toll: 900,000 died in the first onrush and another estimated 1.3 million drowned. In July alone 7 cyclones hit the region. The irrigation channels were also ruined, further adding to the ecological toll on the farmlands. To stop further Japanese advances into western and southern China, Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese Nationalists during the Sino-Japanese War ordered the breaking of the Yellow River dikes. The 1938 flood on the Yellow River was a man made event, caused when the Nationalist Army under Chiang blew up the Yellow River levees on the south bank of the river at Huayuankou. Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans – for example, by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls. Heavy snowstorms in the winter were followed by spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains that raised the river levels even higher. The rain increased into July and August of 1931. The Yellow River Vallley of China, with Box A identifying the flood plain regions researched in this study.The star in Box B is the location of the Anshang and Sanyangzhuang sites. Why is Yellow River called China’s Sorrow? The estimates of the number of people killed by the flood (and the ensuing disease and famine) range from 850,000 to 4,000,000, making it by most estimates the deadliest natural disaster in recorded history. Yellow River Flood, China – 1938. The deadliest was a 1332–33 flood that killed 7 million people. So, ed.. In a Facebook post, Fernando Siringan, former director of the University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute (UP-MSI), said the region serves as a catch basin of water from surrounding mountain ranges.. So, buckle up! Throughout most of its history, China has attempted to control the Huang He by building overflow channels and increasingly taller dikes, and in 1955 the Chinese embarked on an ambitious 50-year construction plan and flood-control program. It claimed between .9 million to 2 million lives. Waters flooded into Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu. In 1938 the Yellow River was turned into a weapon of strategic defense, its waters let loose on the North China plain by Chinese forces resisting the Japanese invasion. During the second Sino-Japanese war, China was under pressure from Japanese forces. Lary, Diana (1 April 2001). Omissions? The Communist … In the modern era, the death tolls of flood disasters have decreased, but economic loss has increased, and the main flooding area in China has shifted from the Yellow River basin to the Yangtze River … Afterwards, the government wasn’t able to organize enough relief efforts. Resilience consideration •Why design for flood resilience •Is flood resilience covered in Government policy • Why is resilience guidance required •What is the aim of this guidance •How to use this guidance Flooding considerations •What are the causes of flooding •What is flood risk management •How does floodwater enter a building •What damage can a flood cause •The effects of contaminated floodwater … Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military history of China (disambiguation), https://military.wikia.org/wiki/1938_Yellow_River_flood?oldid=5263157. As the world’s most heavily silted river, the Huang He is estimated to have flooded some 1,500 times since the 2nd century bce, causing unimaginable death and devastation. All their strategies and attacks failed. Let us take a look at 30 facts about Yellow River and find out a few interesting things about it. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. MANILA — A local official and a scientist have offered explanations as to why Cagayan province frequently experiences intense flooding. This consummate work shows the evolution of the disaster and lays out its ghastly human and ecological effects. , The breach in the dam became such a major rallying point for the Communists that they actually tried to halt an attempt by the Chinese Government, with the assistance of the UN, to seal the breach. River … Between the actual floods and the following famine and disease, up to 4 million people died, making it the deadliest natural disaster in recorded history. The then Nationalist Government decided to halt the forces from further advancement. , Controversy over the number of casualties. 2 Yellow River China 1887 900,000 - 2,000,000 River flood 3 Yellow River China 1938 500,000-700,000 River flood 4 River Ru China 1975 231,000 Dam failure Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The dikes were rebuilt in 1946–47, and the river was rediverted to its former course so that it again emptied into the Bo Hai. 287–297. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. The 1938 flood on the Yellow River was a man made event, caused when the Nationalist Army under Chiang blew up the Yellow River levees on the south bank of the river at Huayuankou. Following the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. Their advance on Zhengzhou was halted, but they took Wuhan in October by attacking from a different direction. The 1938 flood was caused by the destruction of the dikes near Kaifeng (Henan province) by Chinese Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai-shek in an effort to halt the advance of the invading Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45. Close behind is the 1887 flood, which killed anywhere from 900,000 to 2 million people, and a 1931 flood (part of a massive number of floods that year) that killed 1–4 million people. The main reason for flooding was due to landslides caused by an earthquake in the Nanga Parbat region. Diana Lary, "The Waters Covered the Earth: China's War-Induced Natural Disaster," in Mark Selden and Alvin Y. The Yellow River. The Ecology of War in China Henan Province, the Yellow River, and Beyond, 1938–1950. Floods and droughts on China's Yellow River. Thousands of villages were inundated or destroyed and several million villagers driven from their homes and made refugees. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. Chapter; Aa; Aa; Get access. Throughout China’s history, on both of its major rivers, flooding has always been a common experience. Yellow River Flood (1938) The Yellow river flood of 1938, was the largest act of environmental warfare. The flooded countryside was more or less abandoned and all the crops destroyed. On average two occur per year. Dili xuebao [Geography journal] 19 :2 (December), 234 –244. Throughout China’s history, on both of its major rivers, flooding has always been a common experience. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 2 Yellow River China 1887 900,000 - 2,000,000 River flood 3 Yellow River China 1938 500,000-700,000 River flood 4 River Ru China 1975 231,000 Dam failure The second-deadliest flood in human history (after 1931’s Yangtze River floods) had occurred on the Yellow River in 1887, when heavy rainfall caused breaches in over 2,000 feet of dikes near Zhengzhou, drowning some 900,000. Between 608 BC and 1938 AD, the Yellow River changed course 26 times, and flooded over 1,500 times. Most of the towns and transport lines in the areas which were flooded had already been captured by the Japanese; after the flood they could not consolidate their control over the area, and large parts of it became guerrilla areas.
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